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Discussion Starter · #1 · (Edited)
Write Up: Starter Motor Replacement/Refurbishment

The new starter came in this evening. I plan on rebuilding the old starter and disassembling it to find out what is causing the pinion to stick . So this will be a evolving thread as I find time to dismantle the starter and post the progress.

Generic Motor from Amazon. When buying an aftermarket starter, besides the voltage and wattage, it is crucial to know the direction of spin.
Specs:
Voltage 12
Rotation CW
Teeth 9
KW 1.4


Dimensionally identical to the OEM one. Contacts are in the same locations.


Procedure:
1. Disconnect battery. Remove the cover for the ECM. Pull up.



2. Fold out the two red striker plates for the ECM harness.




3. Disconnect the two harnesses from the ECM.


4. Remove 2 mounting bolts for the snorkel.



5. Turn the ribbed hose clockwise to unlock the snorkel


6. Press the tabs in the front to release the snorkel.


7. You may also remove the ribbed hose by turning it counter clock-wise.


8. Remove mounting bolt on the side of the resonator.


9. Then pull to disconnect it from the airbox.


10. Loosen hose clamp and then disconnect the hose from the MAF.


11. Look around the harness and cut all the zip ties attaching the harness to the airbox.



12.Loosen clamp of the brake vacuum hose and then disconnect it from the airbox.


13. MAF harness at the right side of the airbox, disconnect it also.


14. There is another hex bolt behind securing the ECM harness to the airbox. Remove it.



15. Remove the brake booster/vacuum pump from the bracket. And move the pump aside. This will give you more room to maneuver the airbox. When removing the bolt, keep one hand cupped underneath to catch the washer and nut. I lost one rubber 'absorber' in the bowels of the engine bay, but recovered my washer.


16. Detach airbox from the anchors by pulling it straight towards you. It is pressed into rubber grommets in 4 locations, circled in yellow.

Pull out slowly but firmly until it pops out.


17. Now comes the tough part. Getting the airbox out. Move it to the right and angle it upwards a little. There should be just enough room with the vacuum pump gone, to finesse the airbox out. Ironically, VADIS describes the entire procedure in 3 "easy" steps. My engineer's perspective on this design...2/10, Volvo needs to give serviceability more consideration when designing engine bays.


With the airbox gone, I shopvac'ed the engine innards. Now was also a good time to do some inspecting and prodding around. Noticed some oil and discovered this while cleaning around the oil filter and PCV system. The harness on the right is for a pre-heater.


Then, oops I think I broke it.


Looks like I will have to order the PCV hose and replace it before I can get this show back on the road.
 

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How much different do you think this process will be for a T5? Very nicely done so far. You're a valued asset on this forum!
 

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You're welcome. It's not done yet, just a work in progress.
But if you want it stickied, you must say it otherwise Tom won't sticky this. I think there's a protocol to all this.
Then sticky it, Tom!
 

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Same thing happened to my PCV hose, but I think it was just too late. Had just the hose replaced but about a month later the PCV trap started howling.

You should just replace the entire PCV trap while you're in there :)
 

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I would say it is quite similar because the airbox is the same, isn't it?
I know for the 06 T5 (I would imagine the other T5s are the same) that the instructions in VIDA tell you to use an engine hoist to raise the engine when removing the airbox. From experience, when I wanted to remove my airbox on the 06, I disconnected everything and it was almost impossible to pull the airbox out, the gap between the engine and the radiator was just too small. I think there's a thread somewhere where people talk about it and how difficult it is to pull out, then once they get it out, they put in an aftermarket intake, because getting the airbox back in would be crazy difficult.
 

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Bought the PCV hose today too, part number is same for the t5.
Also got a brake reservoir cap for $7.
 

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Discussion Starter · #12 · (Edited)
Continued

18. Next remove these torx screws that hold the coolant hose in place.


19. Then two more screws that hold these wire bundles against the same bracket.


20. Unplug the positive terminal cap and then loosen the nut and disconnect the cables.


21. Disconnect the negative terminal.


22. Using a long extension and a 16mm socket, reach across to loosen the nut. You should be able to shift the cable bundles and coolant hose because they are not bound to the bracket. There really is no room anywhere to put a ratchet in there, except at the very end.


23. The bottom nut is easier to get to with just the socket and ratchet.


24. Then the bracket comes off.


25. Use a 14mm box wrench to loosen the starter mounting nut/bolt. Then remove the starter motor.



26. Reinstall new starter with mounting bolts shown. Tighten down to 40Nm.


The ring gear. Looks like there is no wear on the teeth.



The starter motors. Pinion has 9 teeth, and beveled on the trailing edge. This design is supposed to help with meshing of both pinion and ring gear during pre-engagement and release during disengagement.



Mass Airflow Sensor


So far...

 

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You're welcome. It's not done yet, just a work in progress.
But if you want it stickied, you must say it otherwise Tom won't sticky this. I think there's a protocol to all this.
Naah, just do a good job and I'll sticky it whether you like it or not. :p

There, done!
 

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Discussion Starter · #16 · (Edited)
PCV replacement
This is assuming you are picking up from step 26.

26a. Loosen and remove the 6 bolts (10mm) in the front and 2 bolts in the rear of the manifold.



26b. Unplug the sensor on the top of the manifold. This will enable you to slide the manifold aside without putting too much stress on these connectors.



26c. Prepare masking tape before moving the intake manifold. Once the holes are exposed, quickly put tape over them.


26d. Watch these green gaskets and make sure they do not fall out or get twisted when re-installing the manifold.



26e. Slide the upper manifold aside.


26f. Loosen PCV hose clamp and pull the hose off.


26g. Remove the rubber seal also because the new hose will not fit if you don't remove it.


Left: old hose, Right: new hose.


26h. I've decided to use these hose clamps instead of the ones I got from Volvo. Also called, Abrazadera de Manguera. The screw head makes placement a bit tricky due to space constraints.


Same for the bottom portion.


Air Box reinstallation

27. Greasing the stems. VADIS hinted at lubricating the mounting hooks on the air cleaner module (ACL) with petroleum jelly or similar, which sent me running to my bedside table.


28. Secure vacuum pump to the side so it won't interfere.



29. And just as easily as it slid out, the air box slid back into place. :)


30. The wire harness slides into a slot at the bottom of the air box.


31. Reassemble all three pieces of the resonator outside before installing it back in the car and plug in all harnesses. Start car and check for faults which means you forgot something.

Done!
 

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Discussion Starter · #17 · (Edited)
Starter Deconstruction
Unfortunately I was unable to remove the solenoid because I stripped the bolt heads. But the movement of the electromagnet was unimpeded so the fault lay in the motor.
I was surprised to find no bearings at all, all fittings were made with greased bushings.

Housing removed to show magnets and armature.


Armature and brushes. Drilled out bits in armature plates for balance.


Magnets attached in housing


Gear reduction housing


Planetary gear reduction


With all gears removed


The output of the planetary gears drive this shaft with a helical gear at the bottom. The other end of this shaft is supported by the bell housing, with no bearing! Lots of friction.


The pinion assembly slides up and down this shaft. C-type retaining ring with protective sleeve slid out. This end of the output shaft gets very dirty.


The pinion assembly. The spring only serves to isolate the solenoid arm so vibrations do not transmit back to the solenoid. It does not work as a "Bendix" style return spring.


If I was able to disassemble it entirely, this is what it would look like, minus the reduction gearing.


What I learned:
Since this starter is of a pre-engagement design, the solenoid first activates and pre-meshes the pinion with the ring gear on the flywheel. When the solenoid core travels a certain distance, it disconnects the solenoid's electromagnet and energizes the starter motor. Once the engine turns over, the starter is disconnected. The flywheel's RPMs will then spin the starter's pinion at a higher rate than the armature (which at this point is resisting and being driven instead), and force the pinion assembly back down its helical gear (winds it back down) thereby disengaging the flywheel.
Since my shaft and helical gear are gunky, I believe it is the sole reason my pinion is sticking and causing the strange clacking noise immediately at startup.
I'll report back in a month, or sooner if I hear that sound again.
 

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I bet a little bit of well-placed moly-slip oil would have fixed your starter. But, it's great info! thanks.

BTW starters never have bearings. They operate at low speed and for very short times. In fact, bushings are generally more reliable in such applications.
 

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Discussion Starter · #19 ·
I bet a little bit of well-placed moly-slip oil would have fixed your starter. But, it's great info! thanks.
Yes, I believe a bit of molybdenum grease would help. I also think there was some play between the pinion assembly and shaft it slides on, from being worn, which may be the source of the chattering. I'll look into it again tonight. I may not be able to reuse the starter, but i'll keep it for parts.

BTW starters never have bearings. They operate at low speed and for very short times. In fact, bushings are generally more reliable in such applications.
Yes, it makes more sense now. I believe it is by design that starters don't freely spin when un-energized. Some resistance of the shaft is required to help the flywheel wind the pinion assembly back down its helical gear.
 

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This may be a dumb or premature question, but did replacing the starter cure the problem? Mine does something similar and haven't been sure if it is the starter, ignition or what.
Thanks
Stan
 
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