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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Hi Everyone,

I finished putting the head back on my V50 (T5) today, went to start the car, and have had no luck. Things went in this order of events:

0. Made absolute sure that the engine turned over easily by hand (using a ratchet), and no sound/feeling of valves hitting. I was very careful when setting the timing using the crankshaft pin and the cam locking tools.

1. Crank the engine with no spark plugs in it and the fuel pump fuse pulled to circulate oil around the engine.

2. Put spark plugs, etc. in and put the fuel pump fuse back in place. Sounded like the engine was spinning freely. There was a fairly strong smell of fuel in the air and after long sessions of cranking there would be an occasional pop in the exhaust.

3. I figured that the engine was flooded in the cranking process, so I let it sit for the rest of the day (maybe 4 hours).

4. I got a sinking feeling in my stomach, and fearing the worst pulled out my compression tester. Got a bunch of 15psi readings (OH NO!!!), but then after cranking for a while on 5 got 60 PSi. Went back to cylinder 1 and got 90 PSI! I figured the cylinder walls must have been washed down by gas and needed oil to seal them.

5. After the compression testing, the plugs had aired out for a few minutes and I figured the cylinders would have mostly dried out. Put the plugs, etc. and the fuel pump fuse back in and tried cranking it again. Same symptoms as step 2.

I haven't tested anything with VIDA - there will be a million codes set since I've had the battery hooked up while working on the car.

Note that my battery is pretty dead and I'm using a booster pack to help start the car. It's cranking well, but is it possible that is causing the issue?

Any thoughts as to what to do? Let it air out a long while and put some oil in each cylinder before trying to start it? Does it sounds like there's an issue with the injectors or fuel pressure sensor? It fired up pretty well before the rebuild.

Thanks for any advice/suggestions you might have!
 

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I would verify that the timing is good, that it hits the marks on the cam gears vs the crank. Sometimes one of the gears can be a tooth off. I count the teeth betwixt the cam gears before taking old belt off while everything is lined up. I cannot remember off the top of my head but I believe I get 17. Then I check vs crank that the three are where they are supposed to be after cranking the engine by hand at least 2 crankshaft revolutions. If you used the Volvo cam shaft tool on the back of the head then your VVT should be all good.

If cam timing is all verified I would pull the fuse for the fuel pump and spray some carburator cleaner into the intake via the straw thru one of the ports for a few seconds. Then crank the engine to see if it will start. If all is normal, it should start up and run for a second or two, then die as it burns all the carb cleaner in the intake. If this happens this way, you have a fuel problem. If the engine does not run, it is most likely an ignition problem. This could be cam or crank angle sensor not connected, ignition coil(s), wire harness ground, etc. Hope you get something out of this and glück!
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
Thanks for the feedback. Since the cam hubs were disconnected from the cams, the markings are no longer spot on, so I'd have to check the timing using the locking tool again. I put some oil in a cylinder and checked the compression. Close to 150 psi, so I think the timing is at very least "good enough to run". After the cylinder has flooded with gas it goes down to around 20-30 psi.

I compared my new spark plugs to my old ones and they are different (from the S60 B5254T5 from memory). I put the old ones back in, but I think I put way to much oil in each cylinder as the car would not start and they came out coated in oil, and then later fuel and oil.

Pulled a plug out and cleaned it off and checked that it is sparking - it definitely is. All sensors are connected properly as far as I can tell.

There is a pool of gas in each cylinder, so I need to wait for that to evaporate / clear out before trying again.

I think I'm getting closer but need to wait until tomorrow to try again. The battery is so weak I can't even check the codes with VIDA. I might have to swap the battery with my S40.

In theory I have the following components:

- Fuel, and lots of it!
- Air, I assume
- Compression (when there is oil on the piston rings)
- Spark

I just need to make sure the plugs aren't fouled and the cylinders aren't flooded right off the bat when trying to start it. I don't think there's any way the fuel pressure sensor or injectors could have gone bad during the R&R process.

Will try adding just a teaspoon of oil into each combustion chamber before starting tomorrow (I didn't measure when adding earlier today, but it was obviously too much) and see how that goes.
 

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Have you checked all the sensors for inputs and showing in VIDA or a scantool? I mean oil pressure, ECT, Crank timing, cam timing, MAF, Throttlebody, TCV, FPS, grounding straps, etc and seen if one is missing causing your no start condition? I can't think of any other sensors from the head/turbo on up other than the PTC Resistor in the oil filter housing.

My favorite to check spark is to pull the coil pack out, put the plug in, and ground it to the engine, and crank it, check to see if there is spark. That's what I use to guarantee coil/sparks were doing their jobs.
 

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Discussion Starter · #7 ·
Okay, just did some searching around and I really hope I didn't make a massive mistake. From memory when I was setting the timing using the cam locking tool, the "index" notches (not what the cam locking tool slots into, but the third unused slots) were on the upper side of the cam. It looks like the exhaust side maybe should have been on the bottom side? I just went with what matched the profile of the cam locking tool and what seemed to line up with the mating surface of the head/cam cover.

If the exhaust cam is 180* out, am I beyond repair (bent valves) even if I couldn't feel/hear any contact when spinning by hand, or even when using the starter motor? What code should I look for if it's out 180*? A cam position sensor code?

Here's a photo I found online of how it seems like it should be oriented - can anyone confirm that this is the correct orientation?

 

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Discussion Starter · #8 · (Edited)
I believe the stress and fear of having a mistimed engine is playing with my memory. Here's a photo of the cam locking tool in place on my engine. The darker gray/black portions of the tool (actually touching the cams) both have their index lines facing up, and I made sure that they were in the right way - when in upside down they were slightly vertically offset / uncentered from the cams (imagine two offset circles). I remember having to rotate the exhaust cam 180 degrees using the tool so I think my memory of the notch being at the top is from before I did that. Really hoping that is in fact the case. I read that if you spin the cams with the crank locking tool in place it won't cause damage as no pistons are at TDC.

Anyways, would the car set a code during the short cranking period before startup stating that the timing is out of whack? Can I check the timing in VIDA with that short of a spin/crank?

Sorry for all the posts - just had a minor breakdown being uncertain of the timing and thinking about re-doing the whole head R&R. I no longer think the cams are out of time, but am open to input.

 

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My thoughts are if you had enough gas in there to wash out the cylinders to literally 15psi, then the thing is getting really flooded.

Here's how I would proceed:
- Remove plugs and let it sit overnight to dry out completely.
- Unplug all 5 injectors
- Next day, check compression. If less than 100psi, add a small amount of oil and test again.
- With good compression verified, Install brand new plugs (or clean old ones with carb cleaner and wire brush and install).
- Plug in all 5 injectors.
- Attempt to start as normal. Do not crank excessively (5 seconds maximum per try, 2 tries max).
- If it doesn't start, try clear flood mode. Hold accelerator pedal to the floor and crank starter. 5 seconds max per try, 3 tries max. 30 seconds break between each try.
- Attempt to start again as normal. Do not crank excessively (5 seconds maximum per try, 2 tries max).

If it still isn't running, I would interrogate ECU.
- Especially check coolant temperature sensor value is within expected range (very near ambient temp).
- Same for air intake temp.
 

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Discussion Starter · #12 ·
Thank you for the tips - I really appreciate it. I have been going through steps similar to that, but not in such an organized manner. I will try that process and report back on my results.

The plugs have been sitting in the trunk since last night and were cleaned with brake clean (I'll try carb cleaner and a wire brush as well before they go back in). The combustion chambers are open with the intent of all the gasoline evaporating. Should be good to go this evening.

Good thought on the coolant temperature sensor. Note that I have about a gallon of coolant in the system, but it won't drink anymore, so I've been waiting with my distilled water on standby so that I can add more once it starts.
 

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(I'll try carb cleaner and a wire brush as well before they go back in).
Don't wire brush them! The center electrode is extremely fine and scratches will greatly distort the spark. Just wash away any oil, and use air to dry and dispel any residue.
 

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Discussion Starter · #14 ·
Thank you - warning heeded.

I looked into the combustion chambers and they still appear to be wet with fuel.

I unplugged the injectors and compression tested to see what would happen. Well under 30PSI. Added a teaspoon of oil, and retried. Still under 30PSI. Not sure how it is taking so long to dry out. I might give each of them a squirt of compressed air (from a can).

Pulled codes with VIDA. Image below. The only one that seems concerning is ECM-800D (system relay signal too low). Not sure if this is a result of low battery / things being unplugged and plugged back in, or if it's indicative of a larger issue.

Read the coolant and inlet air temperatures - both are consistent with one another and the actual ambient temperature. Throttle body appears to be opening and closing properly (as per VIDA), and camshaft angle requested vs actual appear to be correct. That being said, I'm not a VIDA expert and am not sure if the values I'm seeing are reflecting the actual position of the camshafts. I did crank it and watch to see if the values changed.

I guess at this point I just have to wait for the cylinders to entirely dry out.

Cleared codes and none of substance came back after cranking a couple of times.





 

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Put a box fan on top of the motor, pointing down, and get a good night's sleep
 

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And obtw codes won't be logged during cranking. Nor will any useful cam angles. Even if they were reliable, without significant oil pressure the VVT units are not doing anything.
 

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30 PSI is not good. Not sure why this is. If the bottom end was not touched then the lower pressure has to be because of the head (valve timing, bent valves, head gasket, crack in the head). However, since all cylinders appear to act the same way, it is not a singular even in a cylinder like bent valves or crack unless somehow you did it to all cylinders. Never seen this in my career. It could have something to do with the VVT.

I have cleared the cylinders out by removing the spark plugs, pulling the fuel pump fuse, then crank the engine a few seconds. put a clean towel over the top of the engine to keep the fuel and oil that may be in the cylinders from spaying on the hood liner.

Spark plugs can be cleaned with carb cleaner and then with a propane torch flame for a few seconds to make sure they are dry. I just put them one at a time in the spark plug tool, hold tool in hand, burn off the fuel oil, let cool, and repeat.

Charge up the battery, weak batteries cause problems.

I hope you get things square away. We are here to help where we can. Keep us posted.
 

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That's interesting - so your photo with the cam angles - is that a live read? Reason I ask is because I was wondering if you unplugged your ECM or not and plugged it in not all the way - otherwise it's getting data for sure with that photo and we can eliminate that connection issue.
 

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Discussion Starter · #19 ·
Thanks for the help, everyone. Feels great to be part of such a supportive community!

Unfortunately I can't leave a fan on it as it's parked in an apartment parking lot. Good to know about the codes and cam angles, though.

J5T - thanks for the tips. I am completely confused as well. I'll try with the fully charged S40 battery plus my booster later today.

Avenger - yes, it's a live read - everything appears to be connected properly.


A note - I peered into the bores quickly this morning. Cylinders 1-4 appear to be somewhat dry - maybe some oil residue left on the cylinders. Cylinder 5 is still soaked. When I shake the engine, I can see liquid moving around in there. I didn't have time to put something down in there and smell it. Will report back later today.
 

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Discussion Starter · #20 ·
I did a few more quick tests today at lunch with very strange results. Here was my order of operations:

1. Add just over 1 tablespoon of oil to cylinder 2 (I chose this one because I knew it had very low compression last night). Test compression. About 120 PSI
2. Add oil to cylinder 1, test compression. Basically 0 PSI
3. Add oil to cylinder 3, test compression. Basically 0 PSI
4. Go back to test cylinder 2 (no additional oil added). Basically 0 PSI
5. Add oil to cylinder 4, test compression. About 120 PSI
6. Relieve pressure from compression tester without removing it from cylinder 4. Try test again. Basically 0 PSI
7. Did not test cylinder 5 due to intense feelings of melancholy.

It's almost as if the oil is creating a seal on the first stroke on cylinder 2 and 4, and then immediately passing by the rings and providing no seal. No idea how that happens.

I should add that I did shim the block while the head was off, however I really don't think the bores were distorted.

- Cylinder 1-2 was very snug (cyl. 1 and 2 appeared to be already slightly out of round)
- Cylinder 2-3 was very snug (cyl. 2 appeared to be already slightly out of round)
- Cylinder 3-4 was comfortably snug
- Cylinder 4-5 was comfortably snug

If anyone really thinks the shims are the issue, is it worth my while taking them out? Are the bores already beyond repair if that's the issue?
 
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