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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Hi,

I've been trying to align my 2004 XC90 2.5L FWD's CAM for the past hour or so without luck. I've turned the crank (clockwise) at least 3 or 4 times at this point and still can't seem to get the marks to align. Here are a couple of pictures:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFZzhoNjZwU0VVc3c
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFUTVGRVdSSklqeDg

There were 3 flat surfaces on each of the gears. However, one had 0 marks on it, one had 4 dots and one had 5 dots. It looked like the one with 5 dots should be the one to try to align to so i put white-out on it to make it easy to see its center. Maybe I chose incorrectly? Should I have put white-out on the other surface and try to align them?

Anyhow, I've turned and turned the crank and can't get it to align. The car is new to me. The belt is volvo and I think it's 100% original. I don't believe it has been replaced in the past.

Please let me know if there's any help you can provide. Thanks!
 

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My friend,

Please upload larger resolution photos if you can. The photo should show the marks on the cams themselves, and the marks on the underside of the valve timing cover. The photos you've uploaded are extremely hard to see! I'm sure someone will be able to help you out though. There's plenty of timing belt questions around on the forums. Here's my experience with my S80 T6, and hopefully it helps even though it's the 2.9L turbo engine (you see actual work and results towards the end)...

http://forums.swedespeed.com/showthread.php?235252-04-S80-T6-Timing-Belt-Job-(Checklist)
 

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
My friend,

Please upload larger resolution photos if you can. The photo should show the marks on the cams themselves, and the marks on the underside of the valve timing cover. The photos you've uploaded are extremely hard to see! I'm sure someone will be able to help you out though. There's plenty of timing belt questions around on the forums. Here's my experience with my S80 T6, and hopefully it helps even though it's the 2.9L turbo engine (you see actual work and results towards the end)...

http://forums.swedespeed.com/showthread.php?235252-04-S80-T6-Timing-Belt-Job-(Checklist)
Thanks for your response. I've uploaded a few more higher quality pics. Hopefully this would clarify the situation. Thanks again!
 

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For clarification on the mark, see http://volvospeed.com/vs_forum/topic/154945-please-help-getting-crazy-on-timing-setup/

Looks like you’re close for the intake but way off for the exhaust. But I’m guessing you already know that.

Upshot is that you need a good and solid baseline before you start. It’s in the instructions I attached the other day. The ring gear needs to be on the hub with screws in the middle of the ovals. Then, with the cams locked from the back, the hub needs to be turned clockwise (with center hub screw somewhat tight) until the ring gear marks line up with the top cover. Then torque the center hub screw to the camshaft. That gives you a baseline for returning the belt, hubs at full clockwise end-stop with timing mark to top cover. Looks like you have this at least close but can’t hurt to be 100% sure that it’s 100% right before proceeding further.

Instructions for putting the belt back on are in the link I sent (in order- crank, idler, intake, exhaust, water pump, tensioner) but it's not easy if it's your first time as you'll need to maintain a clockwise (hold to right) pressure on the belt once it’s on the hubs to keep them at their clockwise end stops while you put the belt back on. You might find that you're slightly off on the marks when all is said and done but it ought to be just that, slightly (1/2 tooth IIRC). You'll maybe need to do this more than a few times to get it right, that's what you'll need to do. Make absolutely sure you're at the TDC mark for the crank, should be hard enough to move off the mark but can happen when you're pushing things around. Best thing for this is to remove the starter motor and put the key that comes with the cam locking kit into the hole and lock things down (rotate counterclockwise until stop). It never hurts to have the crank pulley off so you can get the crank fully seated visually and the tensioner bolted loosely to the engine (some slop). At least these are things you can do to help with success if it’s your first time as the belt, when it goes back on, is tight.

The hard part is keeping clockwise (hold to right) tensioning on the hubs while the belt goes back on. This may take 2 times, may take 10. But be patient and eventually you’ll have it close enough. Then turn the crank a few times and make sure you’re still close and adjust the tensioner.

Follow the rest of the instructions to make the final adjustment for the hub rigs to the hub. Pull the crank lock and turn the engine over a few times manually and make sure there’s no interference just as a sanity check. Put it all back together and give it a try. If you’re lucky, everything will be great and you won’t have any CEL for VVT out of tolerance.

Good luck!
 

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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
Thanks for the detailed description! I'm surprised that the markings don't align. I did not take off the timing belt. In fact, I had just purchased the car and drove 200 miles home without issue. No engine light or codes thrown. I'm just surprised that the marks aren't aligned. Is there a way to confirm that the timing is in fact wrong?
 

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I'm just surprised that the marks aren't aligned. Is there a way to confirm that the timing is in fact wrong?
Sure, get a copy of VIDA on a laptop plus a DICE, connect it up to the car and read the cam position. Someone had it working well enough or it's off but within tolerance (+/- 8 degrees I think). If and when you take the hubs off you'll see there is no keyway on the front of the cams, they get installed, aligned, and cranked down hard (88 ft lbs). So it can easily be working but not lined up per spec.

Regardless, once you're on the mark with the crank and the back of the cams are locked down, you can basically start from scratch and do it right.

If you have not done much on this yet, please read LOTS of posts and see a few videos on the 'net. For the 5 cylinder, with some exception (2 VVT hubs instead of 1 or 0), it's the same job over and over. There's a literal TON of information to be gleaned.

Aligning the hubs is not rocket science, just need to read what others have done and learn from their mistakes.

Last but not least, unless you know the belt/tensioner/roller were already replaced, get this out of the way when you're doing your seal. Volvo calls out 105k miles or 10 years for replacement of all 3 parts. Can think about also replacing your water pump, I did mine but some suggest every 2nd belt replacement (200k miles), I can't say for sure that I disagree.

Take your time to prep, read lots, have the right tools before you start and go slow.

Good luck!

**In the event anyone is even slightly interested in how the Volvo variant of VVT works, been posted more than a few times but here's a good link with pictures: http://volvospeed.com/vs_forum/topic/88544-variable-valve-timing-diagram-of-the-s80/ **
 

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Discussion Starter · #8 ·
Sure, get a copy of VIDA on a laptop plus a DICE, connect it up to the car and read the cam position. Someone had it working well enough or it's off but within tolerance (+/- 8 degrees I think). If and when you take the hubs off you'll see there is no keyway on the front of the cams, they get installed, aligned, and cranked down hard (88 ft lbs). So it can easily be working but not lined up per spec.

Regardless, once you're on the mark with the crank and the back of the cams are locked down, you can basically start from scratch and do it right.
Thanks for the notes. I searched around and looked heavily into resetting the CAM timing. I found some VIDA printout instructions as well as people explaining exactly how to do it - clarify VIDA confusion. In fact, I pulled so much info I was ready to go.

Something still really was gnawing at me. What really bothers me was the fact that I just drove 200 miles without any issues and no CEL - less than a week ago. I kept reading and found this random website where someone posted a pic of setting the cam at the notch on the cover plastic. The pic showed 2 small marks as the timing... that got me thinking.
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFOWFLaFhLZW9EYkE

The marks aren't the ones on the flats of the gear as I was expecting. In fact, the mark in the pic was just randomly somewhere on the gear!

It got me thinking... maybe my white-out is wrong. I put the white-out on my gear's marking yesterday without thinking it could be randomly on the gear itself and not on the "flat" area of the gear. I marked simply where there was a big line between two dots. I figured that was the timing mark. Maybe I shouldn't have done that.

I went back out to my garage and cranked my engine another full turn and I found this!

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFUkFRdE9NZEJNcjQ
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFZ2xLM3VaX2lfb00

In light of the finding, I think my original white-out is wrong and actually... my timing is correct. The rear of the CAM also lines up so that I can lock it down:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFN2N1eHB0Q3UtM2M

One thing I can't figure out is the crank alignment. I still haven't pulled off my timing belt. I want to ensure I'm 100% on for the crank. However, I can't see where the alignment marks are. Any ideas on this? Here's a pic... hard to see:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFVGh0VVo2X20zUUU

Any thoughts on the topic?
1. think my timing is actually correct?
2. how can i figure my crank gear alignment? Tips for that?

Thanks again for your help!
 

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Yep, those little marks are the marks. My bad for not catching this off the get-go but I'm not inclined to pull my cover and it's been awhile. But that's them....

As far as the crank alignment mark, it's hard to see even with a good light but once you see it, you'll know. Do a search for "Volvo 5 cylinder TDC mark" or the like and you'll find plenty of images. Can also look at this post http://www.volvo-forums.com/t40002-xc90-25t-timing-belt-change.htm and there is a photo in a link 1/2 way down.

Get the cam marks aligned and shine a good light down there and see if you can't determine the crank mark. If you have the cam lock kit, my suggestion would be to line the cams up, go a few degrees more in the clockwise direction, pull the starter motor and use the small locking tool that came with the kit. Or look around and see how others have done this and turn the crank gently counterclockwise until it stops. Then you don't have to worry about it.
 

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Discussion Starter · #10 ·
I finally made the CAM locking tool using 3/16 inch thick steel bar (1 inch wide). If i could do it all over again... I'd buy the $60 ebay one. I wish I had listened to some of the other messages out there that said to just buy the tool. I wish I did!

Anyhow, tool on and now trying to remove the gears. I'm stuck. I can't fit my T55 w/ 3/8" ratchet between the hub and side of car. I think it's the ECM... but it's blocking my access for the intake cam hub. Then for the exhaust cam hub, I'm being blocked by the plastic wire housing. Ouy! I'm going to run over to harbor freight or some tool place tomorrow to go search for a low profile torx T55. Any suggestions as to how you were able to gain access?

Thanks
 

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what i did was knock my t55 out of its original socket with a punch and hammer and then put it in a regular socket that made a shorter overall tool. any way i just needed a quarter inch ore clearance for some job i needed to do. i learned this from my serp belt tensioner tool with a t60. it has worked for so, so i hope something like it will work for you.

best of luck!
 

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You can move that plastic wire loom out of the way. It's attached to the car in a couple places where you can pry the loom off some screw-looking things and bend the whole thing up and over the top of the strut tower. I then use something (like zip ties) to secure it out of the way while I work. It leaves plenty of room.
 

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Discussion Starter · #13 ·
Thanks for the responses. I totally forgot about the option to hammer out the T55. I'll be getting up early tomorrow morn and trying that out.

Also, thanks for the note about moving the plastic. I thought about moving it, but saw that there's a bolt or something coming from the wheel well area to anchor the plastic down. I didn't want to pry it off and mess that up. however, it sounds like it's totally doable and will do that if option 1 above doesn't work. I'll be keeping y'all posted tomorrow on progress. Hopefully I'll be much further along and able to check the CVVT hubs. I am hoping that my leak is due to the exhaust CAM seal. If the hubs have too much play... it's gonna get expensive, fast!
 

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Discussion Starter · #14 ·
Wow... Finally back from messing with the XC90 this morning. Spent a couple hours wrenching. Things accomplished:

1. Turned crankgear again in hopes of finding the timing markings. I still can't find it. Searched all over looking for the marking. Moved the gear about a tooth or two at a time and never saw the timing marks. I'm guessing it's there, but too faint to see due to the oil that's spilled all over. I've seen lots of pics (examples on various cars - not XC90 though) and the VIDA diagram. I just can't seem to find it.

2. I reset the sprockets where they should be, locked the cam with the homemade tool and removed the timing belt, idler and roller. I saw that people weren't removing the crank pulley when doing the timing belt removal. I managed the same. I didn't remove the pulley. I'm fearful of how much work it'll be to re-install the new timing belt with the pulley in place.

3. I checked the in/out play of the gears. They both moved about the same amount - 1 to 2mm. I video taped it and would like your comments. The intake gear moved, but it was pretty stiff. No wobble at all. The exhaust gear moved much easier and wobbled as it moved. They both moved around 1-2mm. However, I'm thinking the wobble of the exhaust gear is going to force me to replace it.

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFSVgtX0dMdHBIbnM
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFaFhFTzFsRzFWRWs

4. I next knocked out the T55 from the original socket it came pressed in. This allowed me to use a shorter socket and put a ratchet on the T55 in the tight space between the hub and the plastic housing for the ECM. I went to undo the hub bolt and the camshaft moved! I stopped immediately. The camshaft moved just slightly. I checked and it was undoing itself from my homemade camshaft holder. Ughhh! I'm now looking to borrow one or have one ordered from ebay tomorrow. I won't be getting much further until I can get the camshaft locking tool.

So for the questions:
A. Thoughts on the hub? Does the wobble of the exhaust cam hub warrant replacement? Is the 1-2mm of movement on the intake (though stiff and directly in/out) mean it's normal and leave it alone?
B. I've been noticing this item hanging on the back of the engine. Any idea how this is installed? I'm not sure how the previous owner just had it dangling for ages.
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFNGswV3hYdHozUGM
C. I also noticed the power steering fluid leaking. I tightened the hose clamps. I think they were slightly loose. However, there's fluid all over the bottom of the power steering pump and the alternator. Any ideas of how to clean it? I hear - DO NOT PUT WATER ON THE ALTERNATOR. No worries there. I don't plan on it. I'm thinking brake cleaner and spray liberally on that entire area?
D. I checked the power steering fluid and it's pink. I have the 2004 Xc90 2.5L and the manual says it should be ATF so pink should be fine. However, I heard now Volvo cars are on the green CHF11S stuff. Is there a specific ATF I should be using? I probably will be searching swedespeed to see suggestions on fluid.
E. Prior to purchasing, I did hear a higher pitch sound coming from the power steering pump area - only when the vehicle was cold. I figured it was the serpentine belt getting old, but not 100% certain. It didn't sound like the normal squeal I'm accustomed to hear from other cars I've drive. Could it be that the power steering is going bad? Thoughts?

Thanks again for all the help!
 

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The dangling harness mounts onto the strut bar mount near the right strut tower. I find them hanging all the time.

Those hubs appear to have excessive movement. I would probably replace.
It is not common but sometimes the timing marks scribbed on the cam gears are not to be considered accurate. They are marked at the factory after it is assembled but if the CVVT's were removed at any time, the likelyhood of them being placed exactly back in the same spot is not guaranteed. If the crank is locked and cams are locked, it doesn't matter where the mark is as long as the hub is preloaded in the right direction. I always try to get mine lined back up so to assist in a more simple timing belt change but I always make my own marks on the crank pulley and camshafts to reference where they were as I know that the factory marks may not be the correct alignment. If your engine was running fine and there were no timing faults, it was probably in time.

Water won't hurt your alternator. Plenty get on it while driving in the rain. I wouldn't go dumping a bucket of water in it while its running but I've power washed thousands of alternators and had no issues even with the engine running.

if your manual says ATF, then use ATF. If it says CHF11S, then of course use that. My 04 takes 11S. If it calls for ATF you can use any D3 compatible fluid.

The high pitch squeal you hear, I have found that the drive belt tensioners will make that noise. They are supposed to be replaced at 120K. But Alternator one-way clutches can make noise as well as the PS pump or timing belt tensioner or idler pulley. If you take the drive belt loose, you can spin each bearing and accessory to check for noises more easily.

I have a set of cams out of a 2004 xc90 that have good CVVT's and are still factory timed if you need a set. I'd suggest changing the cam seals so you will need a cam lock tool to properly.
 

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Glad you're getting the locking tool, it makes all the difference in the world, especially if it's your first time doing this.

If you're still not sure about the crank mark, the kit has a small locking pin-sorta-thingy, can remove your starter and see the hole behind, insert the tool and rotate left. if it locks down, you know you're there.

OceansS60 advice is right on the mark and, if he can hook you up with a set of VVT hubs for a reasonable price, go for it.

Good luck!
 

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Discussion Starter · #17 ·
Thanks for the notes. PM sent to Oceans60R. Hopefully I'll have the xc90 up and running shortly. I've gotta wait for the delivery of cam locking tool and now VVT hubs.

In the meantime, I'm going to go ahead and pull the intake so that I can get to the PCV oil trap. I've ordered the genuine volvo oil trap - avoiding URO and Pro Parts. I'm hoping to save a few bucks by attempting to clean the hoses before simply replacing them. Hopefully there's a way to save the $150 long hose. I'll be checking the hole to the intake and engine block. Hopefully they're clear.

I'm also going to douse the entire passenger side of the engine w/ gunk degreaser. Also, going to try my best to clean the power steering pump and alternator. I've heard brake cleaner is safe. I'll try that before squirting water onto the alternator. Going to try to spend the time cleaning the engine while waiting for the few parts to arrive.

I'll return and report back when I get working on the car again.

Thanks again for everyone's input! I really do appreciate all your help through this adventure.
 

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- The cam locking tools used to cost $150-$200 5-10 years ago.
Now it costs only $55 on ebay. You can always resell it on ebay once you are done with the job.
However, I'd keep the tool as long as you own the 5-cylinder engines from 2003-2008 years.

- The coolant hose that you said costs $150: rebuild it. I rebuilt my ATF cooler lines using generic trans hoses, 3 years later so far so good.
Back to your $150 coolant hose...All you need is the cut the crimp off, then use new heater hose and clamps. Make sure the orientation is the same as factory (take photos, diagrams before removing crimp).

I posted DIY on how to rebuild ATF cooler lines below (your $150 coolant line is similar in idea, keep the banjo fittings etc.):

http://www.matthewsvolvosite.com/forums/viewtopic.php?t=55794
 

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Discussion Starter · #20 ·
A month later and I've finally made some progress. It's a long story, but so far complete are:
1. Intake manifold removed and PCV flame box changed
2. PCV hoses cleaned, banjo bolt cleaned, and intake manifold reinstalled w/ new gasket. I need to clean the PTC nipple when I get better access later.
3. New CAM seals installed
4. Received used hubs from Oceans60R (thanks!) - cleaned as best I could... there's very small bits of metal coming out when I inject oil through the holes. However, I think it's the best I can clean them and bits are just going to have to come out during normal operations. I've put 2 cans of brake cleaner through the hubs and 1/2 liter of oil.

Finally, I'm working to install the hub + gear and I seem to be stuck. I'm following the directions from a screenshot someone posted:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFR3I5VzJ6Rmt5QXM
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFVWpaWXBqTlZITGs

However, after I tighten the exhaust hub's center bolt (88 ftlbs) 1 tooth before the timing mark... I am unable to turn the gear 1 tooth to it's final timing position. I think it's because I've taken up all the slack in the VVT hub. I went back to the drawing board and I think the intent was to take up all the slack in the VVT hub AND be lined up with the timing mark. So... here's the approach I used:

1. Loosened the center bolt
2. Turned hub and gear counterclockwise
3. Tightened the center bolt a bit
4. Turned hub and gear clockwise to take up the VVT slack
5. Loosened the center bolt
6. Turned the hub and gear clockwise to match up the timing mark
7. Tightened the center bolt

So now the timing mark on the gear is lined up and all the slack on the VVT hub is taken up. If I grab the gear and try to turn it clockwise, it doesn't move. I can turn it about 2 teeth counterclockwise. It looks like this:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFOWFXYWRnODBWRk0
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B9GkoOkpxdgFR0NESUFINXV5QWs

Can you help me understand if this is correct? I'm going to put on the timing belt next and turn the crank a few times, but wanted to be 100% sure before buttoning the VVT hub and gears all up.

Thanks again for your help.
 
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